sherrel howard drugs of abuse pharmacology and molecular mechanisms
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Drug abuse has been, and continues to be, a global societal issue with diverse sets of impacts. Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms introduces the basic principles of pharmacology and neuroscience of drug abuse. Understanding the chemistry of commonly abused drugs and their impact on brain function will provide students and researchers with a more profound understanding of the molecular basis of drug abuse and addiction. Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms opens with a brief history of drug use and abuse. Subsequent sections look at specific families of drugs, including stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens among others, and explore how their chemical make-up interacts with brain function. The final chapter provides a brief overview of clinical substance abuse treatment. Providing a concise, accessible introductory overview of the topic, Drugs of Abuse: Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanisms will be a valuable resource for students, researchers, and others interested in how drugs interact with the brain. Introduces readers to the basic principles of neuroscience and pharmacology as related to drug use and abuse. Explores how the chemical make-up of drugs interact with the brain and can lead to addiction Includes coverage of a wide array of commonly abused families of drugs, including stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and others. Provides an essential introduction to the chemical and molecular underpinnings of drug use and abuse
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Some drugs which are not aimed at treating heart disease have nevertheless been found to have profound effects on heart muscle. Cardiotoxicity is one of the major forms of toxicity seen in drugs and it accounts for most drug recalls and delays experienced in regulatory approvals.In recent years a number of non-cardiac blockbuster drugs such as terfenadine have been withdrawn from major markets because of cardiotoxicity concerns, while other drugs have either been withdrawn prior to marketing or required labelling changes that significantly restricted their use. In Cardiotoxicity of Non-Cardiovascular Drugs international experts describe the molecular mechanisms and clinical read-outs of cardiac events induced by a broad variety of noncardiovascular drugs. Particular emphasis is paid to the preclinical screening of drug cardiotoxicity. Topics include: metabolic targets of cardiotoxicity regulatory aspects translating molecular mechanisms into clinical trials structure-activity relationships in arrhythmias by antihistamines and psychoactive drugs cardiovascular toxicity of antitumor drugs cardiovascular toxicities of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cardiovascular toxicities of antiretroviral therapies Cardiotoxicity of Non-Cardiovascular Drugs is an essential guide to this important area of drug development. It will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers, regulators and students in medicinal chemistry, drug development, pharmacology, pharmacy and cardiovascular disease.
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This book has been written specially for postgraduate students of pharmacology and medical sciences. This book will help the researchers in the area of searching various targets for the management of cerebral stroke. As it is well known that stroke is the world’s second leading cause of mortality, and considered the most common cause of disability in adults. The book contains eleven different major headings such as Introduction, Prevalence/ mortality, Symptoms and risk factors, Types of stroke, Pathophysiology of cerebral stroke, Current clinical applications, Antioxidants/herbal drugs and cerebral ischemia, Herbal drugs, Important plants/phytoconstituents used in cerebral stroke, Summary and conclusion and Bibliography. Author has tried to cover the entire spectrum of cerebral stroke, and up-to-date information on molecular mechanisms of cerebral stroke and its management with special reference to herbal drugs with latest references.
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The importance of studying manual of introductory pharmacology is sharply into focus on role of drugs and therapeutics. Understand drugs action and how they can affect living things. Know the right dosage of drugs and not just quantity. Identify and respond to drug interactions, Reactions and side effects and treat accordingly. Know when to use drugs because some conditions do not need drug therapy. Identify the properties of ideal drugs.
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Pharmacology for Pharmacy and the Health Sciences introduces pharmacology in a way that is tailored to the needs of pharmacy and health care students. It provides an understanding of drug action at the cellular and molecular level, which is interfaced seamlessly with an explanation of the clinical use of drugs to treat common conditions. Taking a novel patient-centred approach, the book features a series of embedded workbooks which explore clinical topics in the context of individual patients and their experience of illness, and so relate the scientific basis of pharmacology to real-life pharmacy practice.
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Drug abuse directly influences the economic and social aspects of a country. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge level and perception about drugs of abuse from students of private Universities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Private University students were chosen as that they represent parts of the youth of Bangladesh who mostly abuses illicit drugs. Data were collected from the students by a questionnaire form. Samples consisted of both undergraduate (83%) and graduate (17%) students (n=344). Most of the participants were male (82%) and Muslim (89%). About 23% of the participants were using different or at least one illicit drug. Almost all students (95%) had some sort of knowledge about drugs of abuse including their harmful effects. Despite some limitations, this study gives an idea about the level of knowledge and perception towards drugs of abuse from students from private Universities. The Government of Bangladesh should take immediate initiatives to increase the knowledge level on drugs of abuse among young students otherwise they will turn out to be potential user of illicit drugs.
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Are you about to sit your pharmacology exams? Do you lack confidence in prescribing? Would it help to have a quick reference, pocket-sized reassurance on common drugs and the conditions that they are used in? The Hands-on Guide to Clinical Pharmacology is the perfect companion for students, doctors, nurses, pharmacists and other health care professionals who need help on the ward or are preparing for exams. It includes sections containing both treatment regimens of common conditions and detailed information on the relevant drugs that help you obtain a better understanding of therapeutic management. The benefits include: A-Z of over 100 key drugs in a one-drug-per-page format A systems-based approach Fully indexed text Clear explanations of drug mechanisms – a regular feature of pharmacology exams Management guidelines for common conditions within each system Brand new two-colour design to help with information retrieval A new chapter on chemotherapy agents Take the stress out of clinical pharmacology with The Hands-on Guide!
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This work was developed in response to the increase in number of youth abusing drugs. Prevention of drug abuse is important to the health and socioeconomic stability of a country because the cost of substance abuse affects the well being of the population in all these aspects. In Kenya drug abuse contributes to rising health care costs especially in the management of drug abuse complications like alcoholism, drug addiction, diabetes, cirrhosis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neo - natal disorders. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Nyalenda Estate, Kisumu East, Nyanza Province of Kenya on 383 youth drug users selected purposively. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The findings revealed that age and sex of the respondents and knowledge of health effects of abused drugs had an influence in drug abuse among the youth. The commonly abused drugs were bhang, local alcoholic brew (chang’aa), and tobacco. Although the youth knew the health effects of drug abuse many of the youth did not associate the habit with common medical conditions like heart problems among others.
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Alexander Ruban V. The Photosynthetic Membrane. Molecular Mechanisms and Biophysics of Light Harvesting
The proteins that gather light for plant photosynthesis are embedded within cell membranes in a site called the thylakoid membrane (or the «photosynthetic membrane»). These proteins form the light harvesting antenna that feeds with energy a number of vital photosynthetic processes such as water oxidation and oxygen evolution, the pumping of protons across the thylakoid membranes coupled with the electron transport chain of the photosystems and cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthesis by ATP synthase utilizing the generated proton gradient. The Photosynthetic Membrane: Molecular Mechanisms and Biophysics of Light Harvesting is an introduction to the fundamental design and function of the light harvesting photosynthetic membrane, one of the most common and most important structures of life. It describes the underlying structure of the membrane, the variety and roles of the membrane proteins, the atomic structures of light harvesting complexes and their macromolecular assemblies, the molecular mechanisms and dynamics of light harvesting and primary energy transformations, and the broad range of adaptations to different light environments. The book shows, using the example of the photosynthetic membrane, how complex biological structures utilize principles of chemistry and physics in order to carry out biological functions. The Photosynthetic Membrane: Molecular Mechanisms of Light Harvesting will appeal to a wide audience of undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as researchers working in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, plant science and bioengineering.
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Molecular Biology of Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Therapeutics offers an accessible, engaging, and optimistic account of cancer biology for undergraduate and graduate students. Using the hallmarks of cancer as a starting point, the book looks at the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the transformation of cells into cancer cells. After discussing the theory, each chapter then demonstrates how this knowledge can be directly applied to the development of new targeted therapies, giving the reader a clear appreciation of how the theory translates to tackling the disease.
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This book investigated the effects of drug abuse in secondary schools in Garissa and Ijara districts of North Eastern Province, Kenya. This problem of drug abuse may be responsible for various adverse effects on students like the deterioration in academic performance in a number of schools and the indiscipline cases in form of school strikes. The problem of the effects of drug abuse by students in schools in Garissa and Ijara districts was not known since no such study had ever been done there. Therefore, this study focused on the objectives of finding out the sources and types of drugs abused by students in schools, causes and the effects of drug abuse on the students, schools, and the local community. Other objectives were to find out the factors contributing to failure to contain drug abuse and the possible solutions to minimize drug abuse in the two districts of study. The information was elicited by use of questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions. The findings established that abused drugs were mainly khat, cigarettes, and marijuana. In conclusion, urgent measures should be put in place in order to save the students from the dangers of drug abuse.
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There is no dearth of books entitled with Hepato-pharmacology, Pharmacology, Hepatotoxicity, and Jaundice and so on. But this book on Hepato-Pharmacology has its own unique features in its way of presenting the concepts of the super oxides on liver serum marker enzymes levels and liver tissues; it concludes the level of liver toxicity. Significant effects of Ecbolium viride on liver enzymes and histopathological study of isolated liver shows hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activity. This book emphasizes on finding the role of Ecbolium viride and mineral drugs like combination of prepared Borax and Alum against Acetaminophen induced liver toxicity. The degree of protection was determined by the estimation of biochemical parameter like SGPT, SGOT, SALP, Uric Acid, Bilirubin (Direct & Total) and Total Protein. In addition histopathological study was also carried out.
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Drug abuse is a major social problem in the world today. Luanda Division is an area where use of drugs is escalating and increasingly alarming, affecting almost every age of the population. The link between drug abuse and domestic violence disrupts the synchronization of the entire society. People with drug and alcohol addictions cause problems in many other people’s lives as well as their own. Many domestic crimes have been committed while one or both partners are high on drugs. While not all drug addicts and alcoholics are violent toward their partner or kids, almost 60% of domestic violence crimes have a connection to drugs. Therefore, a big part of the solution to domestic abuse is to address the underlying substance abuse. This book provides instrumental information in social development. Six separate, distinctly different objectives are analyzed. Data collected indicates that there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and domestic violence. Local brews, bhang and tobacco are the most abused drugs. The analysis sheds some light on the problem and should be useful to professionals in social development or academicians.
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Drug abuse among students in secondary schools is increasing at an alarming rate.The study investigated the techniques used in managing drug abuse in secondary schools in order to prevent drug abuse.The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The respondents comprised of secondary schools principals, teachers and students, 30% of population was used.The study objectives included investigating the types of drugs abused by students,finding out causes of drug abuse,prevalence of drug abuse and their effects on students in secondary schools.The study was guided by the theory of modified social stress model(MSSM).The data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules.Data was analyzed using descriptive methods and data presented in form of frequency distribution tables and graphs that facilitated description and explanation of the findings.The findings indicated that drug abuse is prevalent in secondary schools,students abuse varrious types of drugs and it has severe effects.The study recommended intervention measures.The study is significant in sensitizing all stakeholders ways of managing drug abuse.
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As an art, medicine is easy to practise and that is why probably the quackery works.But as a science one cannot be satisfied by the fact that certain therapy works in most of the patients. It is more important to understand the basic physiology and pharmacology behind the success or failure.Though it might look complicated and difficult;the depth of knowledge of a particular subject will make better physician and surgeon. In the era of internet it is easy to get the details of any topic but it has not yet replaced the books, where the concise and accurate facts are written. Informations on the internet are sometimes vague,too detailed and inaccurate sometimes. There were not many drugs which were used in eye, so ocular pharmacology was part of ophthalmology text books. This book has been written to provide the reader with a quick review of the drugs used in Eye. There are few books on the subject and the text books of eye do not mention the details of the drugs used in eye. Some new drugs have been developed in recent years, which are used exclusively in the eye and their details is only available in journals and internet.So the book will be of use for both students & practitioner.
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Medicinal chemistry is a scientific discipline at the intersection of chemistry and pharmacology involved with designing, synthesizing and developing pharmaceutical drugs. Medicinal chemistry is a highly interdisciplinary science combining organic chemistry with biochemistry, computational chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, molecular biology, statistics, and physical chemistry. Medicinal chemistry involves the identification, synthesis and development of new chemical entities suitable for therapeutic use. It also includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties, and their quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is focused on quality aspects of medicines and aims to assure fitness for the purpose of medicinal products. The primary objective of medicinal chemistry is the design and discovery of new compounds that are suitable for use as drugs. The discovery of a new drug requires not only its design and synthesis but also the development of testing methods and procedures, which are needed to establish how a substance operates in the body and its suitability for use as a drug.
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The classic and authoritative textbook, Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis,is now fully revised and updated in this much-anticipated second edition. Whilst retaining the first edition’s clear writing style and accessible description of this complex process, updates now include cutting-edge applications of photosynthesis, such as to bioenergy and artificial photosynthesis as well as new analytical techniques. Written by a leading authority in photosynthesis research, this new edition is presented in full color with clear, student-friendly illustrations. An interdisciplinary approach to photosynthesis is taken, with coverage including the basic principles of energy storage, the history and early development of photosynthesis, electron transfer pathways, genetics and evolution. A comprehensive appendix, containing an introduction to the basic chemical and physical principles involved in photosynthesis, is also included. Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis,second edition, is an indispensable text for all students of plant biology, bioenergy, and molecular biology, in addition to researchers in these and related fields looking for an accessible introduction to this vital and integral process to life on earth. stresses an interdisciplinary approach emphasizes recent advances in molecular structures and mechanisms includes the latest insights and research on structural information, improved techniques as well as advances in biochemical and genetic methods comprehensive appendix, which includes a detailed introduction to the physical basis of photosynthesis, including thermodynamics, kinetics, and spectroscopy associated website with downloadable figures as powerpoint slides for teaching
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AAA's... Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones: Man-made antibiotics... This book is designed to provide a detailed account on quinolones and fluoroquinolones. It is based on chemical and pharmacological principles which are necessary to understand synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and molecular mechanisms of drug action making it easy to read and understand for use by both undergraduate students of pharmacy and medicine, and postgraduate students of medicinalchemistry and pharmacology. Features at a glance: - Introduction to quinolone antibiotics - Classification - Structural developments, SAR and QSAR - Molecular mechanism of action - Antimicrobial spectrum & bacterial resistance - Synthesis of some important quinolones - Therapeutic uses.
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The first thorough review of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including their toxicity mechanisms and toxicopathological risks Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are enzymes responsible for the formation of an important class of biological mediators called prostanoids. Prostanoids such as prostaglandins mediate inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. For those suffering from inflammation and pain, the pharmacological inhibition of COXs, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can provide relief. Yet the use of NSAIDs can trigger toxicological effects as well, leading to potential health risks. Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases provides a comprehensive overview of how COX inhibitors affect various bodily systems, specifically the toxicity mechanisms triggered when the COX enzyme is inhibited. The book provides an introduction to the discovery of cyclooxygenases, their use as therapeutic agents, as well as an historical perspective. Shedding light on the differences in expression, pathophysiology, and toxicology of COX inhibitors across species, the book offers a systematic examination of the effects and pathophysiology of COX inhibitors and their mechanisms of toxicity, beginning with the GI tract. Subsequent chapters cover: The pathophysiology of COX inhibition on bone, tendon, and ligament healing COX inhibitors and renal system pathophysiology and mechanisms of toxicity The pathophysiologic role of COX inhibition in the ocular system COX inhibition and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems The book also sheds light on the latest research devoted to developing COX inhibitors with no adverse side-effects. The first book to offer a thorough comparative look at the toxicological effects of COX inhibitors throughout the body, this invaluable resource will help advance the research and development of safer and more effective COX drugs.
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